Style and writing guides

Title Page

This should include:

A concise and informative title

The name(s) of the author(s)

The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)

The e-mail address of the corresponding author

If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)


The abstract needs to stand alone and must be written with this in mind.  It must therefore succinctly introduce the topic, state methodologies applied, give main results (including key numbers/measurements), discuss and conclude. The abstract should not contain undefined abbreviations or references.


4 to 6 keywords for indexing purposes. For more detail see

Body text

This should follow the section sequence of Introduction, Methodology, Results, Discussion and Conclusion.

The introduction needs to begin with a well-referenced global context; presentation of the regional setting must come second, possibly in a separate section.  The scientific question to be addressed must be clearly stated.

A methodology section is essential and must not be mixed with results.

The conclusion should link back to the introduction.


There are three levels of headings, all with the same font size:

Level 1 is bold;

Level 2 is normal font;

Level 3 is italic.

There are no section numbers for the headings.


e.g. should only be used for cases where abundant supporting literature is present, and should be followed by at least three references (e.g., Tizio 1991, Caio 1992, Sempronio et al., 1993). It is preferable to replace ‘…and references therein…’ by references to the source papers.  This does justice to the key literature, on which this secondary paper is based, and helps the reader find the source references.


All abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter. If the abbreviation has been defined in the abstract it must be defined again at first usage in the body text. A term should only be abbreviated if used at least four times.